How we came to purchase our home.

WPA Photo

A Works Progress Administration photo offers a glimpse of our home's past.

Reproduction Windsor Chair

Finally, a dining room set.

No Power, No Heat.

Our first snow storm and it's aftermath, October, 2011.

Lead Poisoning

Updates to our son's lead levels.

Bit By Bit

My wife's blog on being pregnant, giving birth and raising our first child with all the complications, hardships and joys that life throws our way.

Friday, August 1, 2014

Outdoor Spigot Replacement

A couple years ago, upon moving into our home, our outside spigot was removed to allow the installation of a new sill. That same contractor refused to re-install the spigot for one reason or another (see Structural Repairs, Part II). A friend had the right bits to drill me a hole through our new sill. Once complete, he also soldered the copper pipe back into place. Done, right?

A few months later came time to use the spigot. A surprise awaited me as the spigot was now streaming a leak. I only fear how much water was wasted since I last saw it.

Easy fixes first. These spigots have a rubber washer under the knob that seals the joint. Likewise, there's also one at the end of all garden hoses. A trip to Walmart got me a cheapo set of rubber washers. I come home excited, took out my pliers and wrench, turned off the supply valve and.... broke the nut holding the old spigot together. I just have no luck. Damn thing had been in the sun too long, been made of cheap metal or perhaps my neutrinos weren't spinning the correct way... whatever the case may be, now it was time to replace the spigot.

Sometimes, these things just don't go as well as we hope.

There are two general types of spigots, ones that are threaded on much like a shower head and the other, soldered on. The threaded type are the easiest (obviously). Unscrew the old one with wrenches, clean the threads, wrap plumber's tape and screw on the new spigot. The other type is a bit more complex having a soldered connection which needs to be de-soldered with a torch. Guess which one I have…

I ventured to my big-box-store to get some needed supplies:

  • Propane torch
  • Lockable vice-grip (or pliers)
  • Non-leaded plumber's solder
  • Plumber's flux
  • Pipe cleaner (sandpaper works too)
  • New spigot (obviously)

Warning: If you are not a "handy person", I suggest hiring someone who is. Changing out a soldered plumbing part is not overly hard, but can become dangerous when you factor in the torch. It may be best to have a fire extinguisher nearby, just in case.

Read the directions on the propane torch and get use to turning it on and off. It's imperative that this is done to avoid potential issues later on, such as burning down your house. Do not use the torch around hazardous materials nor in confined spaces (i.e. with no ventilation). Lucky me, my spigot is near my oil tank in the basement with sealed windows...

Tip: The hottest part of the torch is not the tip of the flame and not the metal tip of the nozzle. It's the area at the 1/3 point from the tip of the flame. Without this knowledge, you'll spend more time waiting to heat the metal than needed and you'll also use more fuel than you have to.

Once you are comfortable with using a torch, let's move on to the repair.

Remove the section of copper pipe from the system.

Find the connection couple closest to the spigot. Using the torch, heat the copper connection. Once hot enough, using pliers (not your hand... lesson learned), gently rotate the spigot end of the copper pipe connection. If hot enough and the solder has liquefied, it will rotate and can be pulled a part easily. Depending on the thickness of the copper pipe, and amount of solder used previously, the heating process may take some time.

What Not To Do
For my situation, my plumbing is located between the wooden joists, close to the floorboards above. I tried to use a protective barrier to avoid scorching the underside of the floor, need I cause the above-mentioned home fire. I took some aluminum foil as a heat shield. My knowledge of metallurgy is limited so it was a surprise to me when the aluminum became molten and then vaporized. Apparently, aluminum melts quite easily (1,220.58°F) in the heat from a propane torch (3,450°F). So don't use aluminum foil as a heat shield.

De-solder the spigot from the removed copper pipe. 
Same procedure as above. Since our exterior paint is leaded and the old spigot had some paint on it, as a precaution, I made sure I was upwind of any fumes. The de-soldering process heats the copper-spigot connection. I wasn't sure if any leaded paint was present around the spigot but didn't want to risk breathing in vaporized lead.

Clean the de-soldered copper pipe.
Copper tarnishes over time, hence why Lady Liberty is green. For a decent bond, it is best to have a clean (bare metal) surface. Various home stores sell cleaning tools. They look like torture devices, really, with a thick metal wire covered in spiky needles and the other end, a hole with spikes as well. However it appears to you, it's still an abrasive tool to clean off tarnish and light debris from the to-be soldered ends.  After cleaning the ends, the surfaces should look like a brand new penny and slightly roughened.

Apply the Flux.
Flux looks like a jelly paste.  When heated, it sizzles and a vapor is released which should be avoided; something about skull and cross bones being on the label made me assume this.  Really though, best used in a VERY well ventilated area.  Flux works by "attracting" the molten solder throughout the joint. Using a disposable brush, paint the surfaces that are to come into contact.

Assemble the spigot-copper pipe.
Simply insert the copper pipe into the spigot. Twist it a little to ensure adequate spread of the flux.

Solder the connection. 
It is best to secure the spigot and pipe to free your hands during the soldering process.  A clamp or vice should work just fine.  I used a bench vice to hold the pipe steady and the flux around the spigot was just enough to make a snug fit while soldering.  The connection to the system was a bit more complex since there wasn't a bench to work over.  Instead, I jerry-rigged a vice to keep my hands free (see below).  Then, I soldered away after applying the flux.  Its difficult to take a picture while using the torch for obvious reasons (Safety First!).

Test the spigot. Turn on the water and make sure nothing is leaking. Turn the spigot on outside for satisfaction. Done.

Sunday, July 27, 2014

RRP Rule

After the scares with leaded paint, my wife felt that it was prudent to have me take a class in lead safety, just so that I know the current standards in protecting our family from lead dust.  Doing research online, I came across many classes meant for contractors at varying costs.  Some were a week long program for heavy lead abatement (think Hollywood style HAZMAT/alien invasion with plastic rooms and space suit-like attire).  I was not about to spend a week's worth of vacation time to sit in a HAZMAT training class.  Instead, I came across a one day class that, since 2010, has been a requirement for persons to either earn a contractor's license or receive a permit in certain towns.  This one day class is for the RRP certification, or Renovation, Repair and Painting Program.  The one day class instructs contractors on how to identify potential projects where lead may be present, how to test for lead, how to inform the customer of the presence of lead, how to prepare the area being worked on to avoid the spread of leaded dust, how to protect yourself and, lastly, how to clean the work area.  The information is provided by the EPA and is taught by EPA certified companies.  Some states run their own program directly, like Rhode Island and Massachusetts.  In Connecticut, the regulations are set by the Federal government (based out of Boston, go figure?)

After having taken the course this past June, I reflected on the two separate contractors that have worked on our home. Only one of them have actually followed the RRP rules.  The crew that did (seen here), did preparatory work by the book.  The other, more recent contractor (seen here), did nothing; even after being told that there was lead present.

The RRP class is one vacation day and around $200.  You're certified for 5 years and a refresher course (4 hours long) is required every 5 years to maintain the certification.  The class was hosted by Fuss and O'Neil, an engineering company in Manchester, CT.  They, specifically, charged $190 (2014) for the class and provided lunch.  The information is public information as it is from the EPA.  Below, I have listed out the procedures that one must take when dealing with a leaded project.  These are the rules as stipulated by the EPA for a contractor to follow.  For the rules of a home owner, scroll to the end...

1.  Upon arrival to the project, ask the owner when the home was built.  If they tell you it was built prior to 1978, test for lead.  If they don't know, test for lead.  If it was built on or after January 1, 1978, it magically doesn't have lead and the RRP rules no longer apply; you may commence work.

2.  Test for lead using EPA approved test kits (seen here and here).  Document the areas tested and record the results.  If negative, RRP rules no longer apply.  If positive, inform the homeowner and provide them with a government sourced brochure regarding lead risks to children (Renovate Right).  Within 30 days of the completion of the project, a copy of the results are to be submitted to the homeowner.  The homeowner is now fully aware that there is leaded paint present.

3.  Purchase:
6-mil thick plastic sheets (100 feet x 10-foot roll is roughly $60 at Home Depot)
Contractor trash bags (again, Home Depot, 3-mill thick 42 gallon bags, 50 count for $26)
HEPA certified shop vacuum (no, not a vacuum with a HEPA filter, that doesn't count!, Amazon, $250+)
Swifter wet mops (cheapest functional)
Swifter dry mops (cheapest functional)
Duct-Tape (extra wide painter's tape is more safe for floors)
An empty spray bottle (for water wash downs)
Protective coveralls, hooded, and booties (roughly $10, per laborer per day)
Sticky pads (120 sheets for $100). 
4a.  If working on a leaded exterior, protect the ground with 6-mil thick plastic sheets a minimum of 10 feet from the building, 20+ feet when at the second floor.  A contractor is suppose to use their judgement beyond 10-20 feet, where working on a third floor, for example, may cause leaded dust to fall beyond 20 feet from the house.  The edge closest to the building should be duct-taped to the exterior to ensure no gaps.  Cover any wall openings, i.e. windows and doors in the immediate area with the plastic and duct-tape.  The plastic on the ground is to drape over all landscaping, including bushes and vegetable gardens.  Ensure that the sheets are weighed down and never work in windy conditions.  At the end of each day, use the HEPA vacuum to remove all contaminants that fell on the plastic.  The plastic sheet can be re-used, so long as it is cleaned daily, kept in good condition and not transported around the building.  Do not remove the plastic while having contaminated material on it, a risk of the debris falling out and contaminating the ground exists.

4b.  If working on a leaded interior, protect the floor 6 feet from the surface being worked on.  Cover all openings with plastic and duct tape.  Turn OFF any force air A/C or heating system and cover with plastic and duct tape any vent openings in the area.  Access to the room can be made by cutting the sealed plastic at one doorway straight down the center.  A flap is then installed (black contractor's trash bag, cut along seams works perfect) and double hung from the door frame.  Place a sticky mat at the entrance to allow removal of any dust from the feet upon exiting.  Clean up at the end of each day using the HEPA certified vacuum. Vacuum yourself before you leave then dispose of any coveralls used in a contractor's trash bag.

5.  Commence work.

6.  Upon completion, clean up is required.  Always work from the top down.  HEPA Vac the entire room.  Then, using the spray bottle, wet the ceiling surfaces and wipe clean with a white cloth.  Keep wetting and wiping until the white cloth remains mostly white.  Then go to the walls and work your way to the floor.  Once complete, carefully remove the plastic on the doorways, windows and vents and gently roll the plastic from the floor ensuring not to disturb any potential dust remaining on it.  Throw them and all the used cloths into the contractor's trash bag.  Use the wet swiffer to mop the bare floors until the white swiffer mop is no longer picking up dirt (still white after being used).  Focus on a 20 square foot area at a time.  The room should be cleaner than when you arrived.  Seal all used contractor bags using a gooseneck closure.  Dispose of in a hazmat container.  

7.  Retest for lead.

If you are a homeowner, RRP rules do not apply (go figure?).  A homeowner can dispose of leaded waste, in their municipal trash, up to 30 cubic yards!  That's insane, but legal.

There are little details here and there that are discussed in the class, but the critical issues are:
Information - be knowledgeable of what you are dealing with.
Test - test, test, test.
Protection - ensure your family (including the furry type) is safe.
Clean - make sure you wipe down EVERY surface.
Disposal - throw the leaded material, wipes, plastic, etc. out in accordance with the law.
More information can be gained from the EPA:  EPA.Gov - Renovation Repair and Painting Rule.

Saturday, May 31, 2014

4-Poster Bed

Since moving into our historic home, so much time has been spent on the physical structure that very little has been devoted to furnishing it (we still have a couple empty rooms).  Our bedroom has a hand-me-down dresser from a college friend that is packed full of our necessities, a solitary night stand from a recycling yard and a metal bed frame sourced from Craigslist.  Rather sparse for a modern bedroom yet my wife has been content (at least that's what I thought).

After two-plus years, my wife had enough.  Her birthday was arriving and when I asked for her preference, instead of the usual textile items, she blurts out FURNITURE!  My wife's wish for her birthday was a piece of furniture for our bedroom.  Having looked through sample sales of period furniture, she gave me a limit of $3,000 (as my wife and I share approval in our expenses, we do not make purchases without the other's approval).  She said that it was time we got something and whatever it was, it had to be for our bedroom.  

We sat there each night scouring EBay and other sites for authentic period pieces.  For decent period pieces, even at our limit, it was just a little out of reach.  Not to mention fears of potential leaded paint and, along the same lines, protecting an $8,000 dresser from a hyper toddler.  We decided to shy away from true antiques.

We moved on to our bed frame.  A year or so prior, our bed and box spring sat directly on the floor.  It was a habit from our former days of apartment living when buying furniture for a year-long rental wasn't needed.  Also, our cat loved clawing the underside of the box spring (even climbing inside).  Then, however, our cat matured and as being on the floor invited spiders crawling over us at night (ew), we purchased a basic metal frame and elevated our bed away from the arachnids.  Now, it was time to have a formal bed frame, no more low-rider beds in cahoots with spiders and manic cats.  It's time for a mommy and daddy bed.

$3,000 is a lot of money for most people (it's a lot of money for us as well).   I realize that we do not live centuries in the past, but I would like to stay true to the appearance of the past and there is an associated cost with that level of quality.  There really isn't any sense in owning an 18th century American home and filling it with modern Japanese art (like our previous owner).  In my opinion, for a home that a person owns, their furniture should compliment it.

In a prior post, I commented on D.R. Dimes.  Though beautiful furniture, their pricing was just out of reach.  So I searched online through various vendors for reproduction furniture.  I came across quite a few and many having the same prices close to D.R. Dimes or of mass produced varieties that just look too "modern" for our home.  I finally came across a furniture maker who's pricing is much less than that of D.R. Dimes, but still of a quality equal to the of the famous maker.

Out in Lancaster County, PA, is a furniture maker with an impressive inventory of reproduction pieces.  Their site, GreatWindsorChairs.com, shows off their collection of period pieces for every room of a historic home.  They are not IKEA-like furniture with particle board components.  Like with many things, authenticity and quality do not come from low-cost chains.  I ventured to their site, found their bedroom furniture and noted a little highlighted blurb about discounts being available.  I submitted a questionnaire through their site and soon received a call... that's when I met Michael Rice.

Michael was patient with me.  I was flopping back and forth with choosing between the available tiger maple or cherry wood construction (trivial:  both were the same price, another differential from D.R. Dimes).  In the end, I settled on the tiger maple with a canopy shipped to my living room.  Pricing was great.  Michael described to me that the discount applied to their current inventory only and returns were not possible.  They had a tiger maple king size canopy bed in stock at 10% off their regular pricing.  Shipping was through an outside delivery service for an extra fee.  All together, $2,990.50 was charged to my credit card.  Within two weeks, the bed was in my home and I came in under our budget.

It took roughly 2 hours to assemble as each part was nicely wrapped heavily in bubble-wrap.  Unwrapping the parts was time consuming.  Once all exposed, assembly went quickly.  It's easier with two people (per the directions), but with the other able-bodied person caring for our little one, this was a one-person job.  Besides, it was her birthday...

All the parts came wrapped in bubble wrap, held together with tape.

Each bundle was labeled making it easier to grab the right part during assembly, eliminating the guess work.
Unwrapped headboard and corner posts.  I used the bubble wrap as padding.
Bolts that secure the posts to the rails.  They came with a tool to aide in installation.
Final assembly of the parts.  I had to use books to support the rails during the "two-person" stage while attaching the bolts.

The partially assembled bed.  I couldn't place the canopy on top because the finials that attach the bars are too tall for our room.

Being in an old home with (plus or minus) 7-foot ceilings, a four poster bed with 7'-4" posts was not going to fit.  Discussing the height issue with Michael, I learned that the finials can be easily trimmed.  They are basically a decorative peg about 6 to 8 inches in height that support the canopy.  No screws, no bolts; just a solid piece of maple, turned on a lathe.  I measured the clearance that the finial needed for installation above the canopy.  It's simply the length of the peg from the bottom of the finial.  That distance was measured on the top of the finial.  I drilled a hole into a price of squared scrap wood to hold the finial.  I then used a miter hand saw to cut off just enough from the finials to fit our ceilings.  The final appearance is more sedate than the original form, I actually like it better.

Removing the top of the maple finial using a common hand miter saw.

A cut finial compared to it's former size.  The removed top allows just enough room for the installation and it's appearance actually looks quite attractive.
I am very pleased with the bed frame from Great Windsor Chairs.  The quality is impressive.  It is solid maple and the "tiger" finish is absolutely gorgeous.  The bed as a whole is not 100% hand-made.  It's a hybrid of machine and hand tooling.  Considering the much greater expense with a completely hand made piece (and with a toddler around), I'm OK with a hybrid approach to the construction.  Having said that, what really is quite exciting are the details that a lay-person may over look.  On the flat surfaces such as the head board and even the canopy frame are the tool marks from the hand plane used to flatten the components!  I realize that reads a bit dorky, but those "imperfections" just add to the quality of this piece.  It truly is an heirloom to pass down and money well spent.  It also satisfied my wife.  Take a look at some of the details below:

Photographing very fine details in wood is harder than I thought.  The light has to be just right to reflect the undulations for the camera lens to capture.  Above, the bottom bar of the canopy support show the marks left by the hand plane.  Simply awesome.

Finial installed a top a corner post with canopy bars.  I think it looks great!

Lamb's Ear detail of the corner post.

Bolt cover detail.  Some manufacturers offer metal covers for an added expense, these were included and pre-installed.

Rope hole detail.  For an added touch of authenticity, a large diameter rope can be added to mimic a rope bed.  

Headboard closeup.

The king size canopy bed from GreatWindsorChairs.com.  With the cost of the bed being what it was, there was no more room left in the budget for a quilted colonial blanket.

Disclaimer:  I have not been reimbursed by Great Windsor Chairs, nor by Michael, for writing this entry.  I have received a 10% discount which is readily available to any consumer when Great Windsor Chairs advertises a sale.

Sunday, April 20, 2014

Parlor Renovation, Part II - Window Sashes

A continuation from Parlor Renovation, Part I.

It was agreed that I would strip the window sashes to save on cost in preparation for the work to be done to our southern parlor window.  It was a simple task (isn't it always?).  I purchased paint stripper, a scraper, a dust suite and a lead vapor rated painter's mask.  I setup my area in the driveway placing a disposable plastic tarp on the pavement, two horses atop and dawned my space suite attire.  I retrieved the sashes from the back porch and while carrying them to my work area, one of the rails loosened and nearly fell off.  Well, there goes stripping them...

Turns out, the bottom rail on one of the sashes was rotted at the joint and had come loose.  My tail between my legs, I called Sunderland and requested his opinion.  He felt that it was an easy fix of a job costing roughly $300.  As usual, I wanted to make sure I was getting the best price.  After he explained what that cost entailed (replacing the bottom rail and re-glazing the three bottom panes).  I told him to never mind the whole window altogether and simply focus on repairing the rot and water issue with the frame.  I sought to replace the window sashes outright.

I searched online and came across Caroline Sly of Ashfield, MA.  She is a one-woman shop and claims to make windows by hand (among other wooden assemblies including stringed musical instruments) and after contacting her, she offered to stop by and show a sample of her work.

Prior to her arrival, we exchanged emails.  We spoke of early expectations and I learned just how affordable she is.  As my readers will recall, I always say that money is a matter of perspective, so what does affordable mean?  Well, if Sunderland Period Homes was willing to repair my one lousy reproduction window sash from the 1960's for $300 plus another $400 to weatherstrip with vinyl/plastic strips both sashes; Mrs. Sly was hand-making TWO sashes, with antique glass from the 19th century and weatherstripping of a similar nature for $425 (un-painted).  $700 to repair one reproduction versus $425 for a new period reproduction.  

I'll take your silence as a nod of approval.  She's a godsend when dealing with a constant barrage of high prices.  Mind you that pieces from Mrs. Sly are a custom one, so what may be of one charge for my home, could be different for yours (meaning, you should contact her for specific applications).  Here is her site: www.CarolineSly.com.

Her work speaks for itself.  Is it perfect, no.  Is it affordable?  For us, yes.  There are little issues I have with her work, details that would annoy me tremendously if Sunderland had done it, especially with his level of pricing.  She gave her opinion with details and listened to our desires.  It took her a week to create the pair of sashes, glaze them and deliver them to our home.  The glazing was still pliable when she dropped them off.

I was hesitant on informing Mr. Sunderland of my purchase.  After all, he is working on our home and has the means and methods of creating windows.  I would not want to offend him by taking business away.  I tried to keep things simple and simply asked that we did not install the weatherstripping on the old sashes and that I'll deal with them later.

But Mr. Sunderland kept on badgering me about the window, that it needs to be repaired or it will not function correctly, etc.   He was right, of course, yet, his pricing is just out of reach for my sanity.  In the end, I relented and confessed the real reason for foregoing the repair of the old sash.  Once my secret plan came to light, Mr. Sunderland really didn't say much.  He didn't seem to mind at that time and I invited him to examine the new sashes. 

Sunderland Period Homes strives for perfection in the details, at least that's the impression.  So, it wasn't until several weeks later that Mr. Sunderland felt compelled to give his full opinion of the sashes.  He examined the window and began pointing out all the inconsistencies in workmanship as well as the structural integrity of the window.  He said that the rebates for the glass were too shallow and that the panes of glass would fall out in time.  He added that the sashes were over tightened while being assembled which warped the sash.  He continued on for a short while, honestly aggravating me quite a bit.  I cannot afford to have Mr. Sunderland do as he pleases on my dime.  I'm not a wealthy person, I'm simply a family man paying my bills with an interest in historic homes.  So, with whatever little extra income we have goes towards our home.  If the expense is too great, something has to give.  I'm not a bottomless pit...

In retrospect (and I'm not an expert) I find it a bit hard to believe that a joiner from the 18th century would have made such perfect sashes by hand with wood sourced from one's backyard that would've passed Mr. Sunderland's critique.  It's been a while since that discussion and I am still annoyed by it.  I'm sure he's also annoyed at me for telling him that he's just too damn expensive for us, literally.

These sashes may not be perfect, but you be the judge.  Do they live up to your expectations?  Here are some closeups as they looked when Sunderland saw them:

The left sash is as Mrs. Sly delivered it, fingerprints and smudges from the glazing process present (so what?).  The right sash was cleaned and prepped for painting.  I think I am satisfied.

Mrs. Sly is due to come back to install the weatherstripping and fitment within our frame.  As of this posting, our agonizingly slow repair is as a result of yours truly having other priorities (a.k.a. LIFE) getting in the way.  As an update can be made, I'll post it up.

Miscommunication, one of the most annoying things in life.  Between the window sash ordering, scheduling, dealing with Sunderland Period Homes, the lead problems; I must've misunderstood Mrs. Sly when she and I discussed installation.  She was unable to install the window sashes due to age (70+ years to her credit).  So I sit here completely beside myself since the promised windows were delivered without weatherstipping pending installation (hence my assumption of her installing them).  Well at least the price of the window, as is, is still more affordable than a repaired replica.

Wednesday, February 5, 2014

Dining Room Area Rug

With our parlor currently being renovated (very slowly), and there is only one other way to get to the back of our home, our dinning room is getting quite a bit of foot traffic.  I've become concerned that our old floor is being beaten more than required.  On top of that, our toddler has been running around the room playing and wrestling.  My mind goes crazy the level of damage that can be done to these unprotected pine floors.

My wife and I have been on the lookout for rugs locally and from various other online sources.  I came across the "souvenir" shop at Colonial Williamsburg and found the Leaf Green Garden Maze area rug (seen here).  We liked the look of it and as it was designed based upon a sample from Colonial Williamsburg's archive is a major plus.  The manufacturer is Capel Rugs and is constructed of 100% Olefin.  
I know what you're thinking.  What is Olefin?  I had no idea until I looked it up.  It's a synthetically made fiber that has several advantages.  It is abrasion and fade resistant and also resists water & mold.  Hence why this rug can be used both indoors and outdoors.  Cleaning up is much easier than on a "normal" carpet but I can imagine that fluids would pass through it much more quickly than other materials.  

An important note on historic rugs.  From my understanding (which is limited), rugs were of two types in the 18th century, if used at all.  There was the braided type in ovals and circles and then there was the canvas from sails.  Sails were woven canvases of hemp or flax sheets.  Obviously, Olefin would never have been found in an 18th century home (it was invented in the 1950's).  It's woven appearance is similar to a thick canvas, like a sail.  Texture-wise, it takes some getting used to but with it having the appearance of a sail-like material, it fits well with our home's historic details.  Also, there is no pile, just a flat non-fuzzy canvas.

The internet is full of various prices for the same exact item.  I searched and searched and found this source: Brick House Rug Center.  The shipping was free and took less than a week from their warehouse to CT.  It came wrapped in a thick plastic sleeve, but was compressed during shipping/storage and has ripples from the folds.  In time, these should flatten out.  The rug came with a cleaner from the manufacturer as well as a non-slip pad (needed as this rug is slippery on a wooden floor).

And one last bit, the coloring from the seller's site, as well as that of the manufacturer show more green tones.  The carpet I received seems much lighter being a mixture of green and white.  I'm not sure why, with exception to computer screen coloring.  Maybe there was an error in shipment/manufacturing or perhaps this is what it is.  Below is a comparison with the coloring of our pine floors.  The difference is not too far off to make us cringe but is a bit of a let down.